A group of people with formally assigned roles who work together to achieve the stated goals of the group.
- Common purpose/goals
- Organizational structure
A person who plans, organizes, leads, and controls the work of others so that the organization achieves its goals.
- Is responsible for contribution.
- Gets things done through the efforts of other people.
- Is skilled at the management process.
- Refers to the manager’s four basic functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Management skills are also useful for “non-managers”.
– In the workplace
– Leisure activities
Efficiency means achieving the greatest possible output with a given amount of input.
Effectiveness means to achieve goals that have been set.
To achieve managerial effectiveness, focus on
– The tasks that employees do
– The satisfaction of employees as they do the tasks
The Manager as Innovator
• The Entrepreneurial Process
– Getting employees to think of themselves as entrepreneurs.
• The Competence-Building Process
– Working hard to create an environment that lets employees really take charge.
• The Renewal Process
– Guarding against complacency by encouraging employees to question why they do things as they do—and if they might do them differently.
Do You Have the Traits to Be a Manager?
• Personality and Interests
– Social Orientation
• Attracted to working with others in a helpful or facilitative way; comfortable dealing with people.
– Enterprising Orientation
• Enjoy working with people in a supervisory or persuasive way in order to achieve some goal.
– Managerial Competence
• The motivation and skills required to gain a management position, including intellectual (analytical), emotional, and interpersonal skills.
– Career Anchor
• Is an occupational self-concept or value that directs an individual’s career choices. Managers often have had a strong motivation to earn the position of manager.
The Managerial Skills
• Technical Skills
– The need to know how to plan, organize, lead, and control.
• Interpersonal Skills
– An understanding of human behavior and group processes, and the feelings, attitudes, and motives of others, and ability to communicate clearly and persuasively.
• Conceptual Skills
– Good judgment, creativity, and the ability to see the “big picture” when confronted with information.
Today’s Management Environment
– The tendency of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new markets abroad.
• Technological Innovation
– Information technology advances have revolutionized the workplace
• Deregulation and Privatization
– Less government involvement in business
• Changing Political Systems
– Central planning is being replaced by capitalism
• A Diverse Workforce
– Increasing numbers of women and minority-groups participating
– Becoming older
• Category Killers
– Large chain stores squeeze out weaker retail firms and negotiate lower cost of goods sold